Your Road to Wellness

Insulin resistance

How do you stay healthy long term and effectively fight off pathogens?

Posted by on 9:00 am Diabetes, Glucose, High glycemic index, Insulin resistance, Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, Sugar, Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes | 0 comments

pathogen

 

At certain times we have to deal with more pathogens like viruses and bacteria, but there will
always be challenges to handle.
The best way to confront that is to be prepared by implementing habits that will make both the
body and mind resilient.
When we take a closer look at why we get sick, and also why we develop chronic conditions,
the major reasons are much the same with some variation of course.
A major health problem today is insulin resistance.
According to the CDC and the National Diabetes Statistics Report, a total of 34.2 million people
have diabetes in the US.
The reason for type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance.
A total of 88 million people aged 18 years or older have prediabetes, that’s 34.5% of the adult
US population.

 

 

People with prediabetes are insulin resistant, but they are not so insulin resistant that they are
diagnosed with diabetes.
Insulin transfers blood glucose into the cells where it can be used for energy.
When the receptors on the cells are exposed to high levels of glucose and insulin for a period of
time, they will get less sensitive to insulin. The result is that the insulin will not be able to
transfer the glucose into the cells as efficiently as before.
This causes free radical damage and inflammation.
The following research has shown that high glycemic index food will with time increase
inflammatory markers CRP, IL-6, and TNF-alpha (Phillips CM, et al., 2018).
The same study also found that high glycemic index food increased LDL ( high density
lipoprotein), a major cardiovascular risk factor.
In addition, advanced glycation end products, formed during hyperglycemia (high blood
glucose), cause inflammation and endothelial damage (de Vries MA, et al., 2014).
Advanced glycation end products are formed when glucose reacts with protein, causing tissue
damage and then inflammation.
It is very important to have an appropriate immune response when exposed to a virus
like COVID-19.
New research is documenting why it is very important to avoid huge surges in blood glucose.
There are at least two reasons why hyperglycemia can be very dangerous during the
SARS-CoV-2 infection (Ceriello A.,2020).
One is that an acute increase in blood glucose is accompanied by a huge increase of
inflammatory mediators.
This author also says knowing the role of the “cytokines storm” in the COVID-19, this is an effect
that must be avoided.
Too much of an inflammatory response is often what leads to death because of massive tissue
damage.
Another reason that seems to be specific for COVID-19 is related to the binding of the virus to a
cell receptor. Glycosylation of the receptor induced by hyperglycemia is needed for the linkage
of the virus to this cellular receptor.

This is what researchers of a new study from China found (Zhu L, et al., 2020).
Well-controlled blood glucose was associated with markedly lower mortality, compared to
individuals with poorly controlled blood glucose. These findings provide clinical evidence
correlating improved glycemic control with better outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and
pre-existing type 2 diabetes.

There are several factors affecting blood glucose control. 4 of the most important ones are the
the food we eat, it should be high nutrient, low glycemic index food.
Physical activity, exercise helps transfer glucose from the blood into the cells.
Not enough sleep will adversely affect the circadian rhythm and make us less insulin sensitive.
Get between 7-8 hours.
Stress will also increase blood glucose. Stay in a good state of mind. Several things can help
you do that, meditation is one.
An easy way to help keep blood glucose in a low normal range is to take berberine, a natural
plant derivative.
In this study fasting blood glucose was reduced with 34.9%, and the blood glucose after a meal
was reduced with 43.9% (Yin J, et al., 2008).

 

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References:

Ceriello A. Hyperglycemia and the worse prognosis of COVID-19. Why fast blood glucose
control should be mandatory. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020 Apr 29;163:108186.

de Vries MA, Klop B, Janssen HW, Njo TL, Westerman EM, Castro Cabezas M. Postprandial
inflammation: targeting glucose and lipids. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;824:161-70.

Phillips CM, Shivappa N, Hébert JR, Perry IJ. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Biomarkers of
Lipoprotein Metabolism, Inflammation, and Glucose Homeostasis in Adults. Nutrients. 2018 Aug
8;10(8).

Yin J, Xing H, Ye J. Efficacy of berberine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism.
2008 May;57(5):712-7. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2008.01.013.

Lihua ZhuZhi-Gang SheXu ChengJiao GuoBing-Hong ZhangHongliang L, Association of Blood
Glucose Control and Outcomes In Patients with COVID-19 and Pre-existing Type 2 Diabetes,
Cell Metabolism, Published:April 30,
2020DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.04.021 Blood Glucose

 

 

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  • The research referred to below was conducted with participants who had type 2 diabetes. This does not mean that you have to have type 2 diabetes to take this formula.
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Can your blood glucose regulation affect your memory?

Posted by on 12:45 pm Bloodsugar, BMJ Formula, Cognition, Dementia, Diabetes, Diet, Diet, Glucose, Health Risk, Insulin resistance, Memory, Wellness | 0 comments

This study investigated how the ability to control the levels of blood glucose was related to mood and cognition (Young H, Benton D, 2014).

155 adults, aged 45-85 years,  without a diagnosis of diabetes, were given an oral glucose tolerance test and cognitive tests. 

The researchers found that those with poorer glucose tolerance forgot more words and had slower decision times, but only if they were 61 years or older. 

The next study on the same topic included 93 healthy male and female non-diabetic participants who ranged in age from 55 to 88 years (Messier C, 2010). 

The researchers measured cognitive function as well as other things. The participants also had a glucose tolerance test during which glucose and insulin were measured.This was done after drinking a saccharin solution and on another occasion after drinking a glucose solution (50 g).

The results showed that progressively worse glucose regulation predicted poorer performance on measures of working memory and executive function.

The researchers stated that the results suggest that cognitive functions may be impaired before gluco-regulatory impairment reaches levels consistent with a type 2 diabetes diagnosis.

The change from being insulin sensitive to being insulin resistant is a gradual process. This shows that it is really important to keep your blood glucose at a low and normal level not only after you have fasted, but also after eating. Ideally it should be below 90 two hours after a meal.

The sooner you  implement strategies to stay insulin sensitive the better it is.

You can stay insulin sensitive by making changes to the way you eat and by incorporating exercise into your routine.

References

Messier C, Tsiakas M, Gagnon M, Desrochers A. Effect of age and glucoregulation on cognitive performance. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2010 Oct;32(8):809-21.

Young H, Benton D.The nature of the control of blood glucose in those with poorer glucose tolerance influences mood and cognition. Metab Brain Dis. 2014 Sep;29(3):721-8.

 

 

 

Learn to Eat Program

Based on the most effective scientific strategies, this program was created to help
you reduce inflammation and feel great.

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A lesser-known benefit of a plant based diet

Posted by on 4:37 am Diet, Diet, Diseases, General Health, Health, Health Risk, Insulin resistance, Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, Stay healthy, The Learn to Eat Plan, Vegetables, Wellness | 0 comments

You may not have heard about Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), but this metabolite is created by the bacterial flora in the gut in response to certain food components.  This is the process.

TMAO originates from a precursor, trimethylamine (TMA) that is a metabolite of mainly choline and carnitine from ingested foods and may be involved in insulin resistance (Oellgaard J, et.al., 2017).  Why is TMAO important?

TMAO may not only increase the risk for insulin resistance, but also TMAO appears to be of particular importance as a risk factor and potentially a causative agent of various pathologies, mostly cardiovascular disease and other associated conditions (Al-Rubaye H, et.al., 2018).

Dietary l-carnitine is converted into the atherosclerosis- and thrombosis-promoting metabolite TMAO via gut microbiota-dependent transformations.
TMAO transformation is induced by omnivorous dietary patterns and chronic l-carnitine exposure (Koeth RA, et.al., 2019 ).


A big difference in the TMAO levels can seen when comparing people eating animal-based protein to vegans (who eat plant-based protein). Eating a plant-based diet results in a different gut bacterial flora and will not produce much TMAO.

References

Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as a New Potential Therapeutic Target for Insulin Resistance and Cancer.
Oellgaard J, Winther SA, Hansen TS, Rossing P, von Scholten BJ.
Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(25):3699-3712. doi: 10.2174/1381612823666170622095324. Review.
PMID:28641532

The Role of Microbiota in Cardiovascular Risk: Focus on Trimethylamine Oxide.
Al-Rubaye H, Perfetti G, Kaski JC.
Curr Probl Cardiol. 2018 Jul 7. pii: S0146-2806(18)30079-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2018.06.005. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
PMID:30482503

l-Carnitine in omnivorous diets induces an atherogenic gut microbial pathway in humans.
Koeth RA, Lam-Galvez BR, Kirsop J, Wang Z, Levison BS, Gu X, Copeland MF, Bartlett D, Cody DB, Dai HJ, Culley MK, Li XS, Fu X, Wu Y, Li L, DiDonato JA, Tang WHW, Garcia-Garcia JC, Hazen SL. J Clin Invest. 2019 Jan 2;129(1):373-387. doi: 10.1172/JCI94601. Epub 2018 Dec 10.  PMID:30530985

 

 

Learn to Eat Program

Based on the most effective scientific strategies, this program was created to help
you reduce inflammation and feel great.

Read more…

Can nuts improve insulin sensitivity even in diabetics?

Posted by on 5:17 am Diabetes, Diet, Diet, General Health, Insulin resistance, Nut consumption | 0 comments

It is important to be as insulin sensitive as possible.

When you are insulin sensitive, your insulin effectively transfers the glucose from you blood into the cells where you can use it for energy, and your blood glucose stays in a low and normal range.

Elevated blood glucose will cause problems because it will increase inflammation, free radicals and damage your tissue. That’s why people with diabetes are much more susceptible to chronic diseases.

High glycemic index carbohydrates will raise your blood glucose too high because this type of food is converted to sugar and absorbed fast. Especially flour (white bread), potatoes and white rice will do that, but foods like whole grain bread, at least the regular whole grain bread you normally get in the store, as well as brown rice, unless you have very little a one time, will do that also.

That’s why substituting those foods for something else can make a significant difference.

That is exactly what was done in the following study.

The research was carried out in a hospital research center.

A group of men and women with type 2 diabetes was put on one of three diets for 3 months (Jenkins DJA, et.al., 2018).

One group was put on a diet getting 477 calories from 75 grams of mixed nuts, one group got 471 calories from 3 whole wheat muffins, and one group got half a serving of the nuts and half a serving of the muffins.

The group consuming the 75 grams of nuts showed a reduction in Hemoglobin A1c, a marker of long term glucose control, compared to the group having the muffins.

Several cardiovascular risk factors also improved in group eating the 75 grams of nuts daily.

Nuts works better than whole grains if you want to improve your glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors.

75 grams of nuts are approximately 2 and a half handfuls of nuts.

Reference

Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Lamarche B, Banach MS, Srichaikul K, Vidgen E, Mitchell S, Parker T, Nishi S, Bashyam B, de Souza RJ, Ireland C, Pichika SC, Beyene J, Sievenpiper JL, Josse RG. Nuts as a replacement for carbohydrates in the diabetic diet: a reanalysis of a randomised controlled trial.Diabetologia. 2018 Aug;61(8):1734-1747.

 

 

Learn to Eat Program

Based on the most effective scientific strategies, this program was created to help
you reduce inflammation and feel great.

Read more…

 

3 Reasons Why Improving Insulin Sensitivity Will Improve Your Memory

Posted by on 10:00 am Brain, Insulin resistance, Memory | 0 comments

An association between hyperglycemia (which is high blood glucose levels) and cognitive dysfunction have been found in relatively healthy older individuals (Umegaki H, et.al, 2017). Insulin resistance which happens when the insulin sensitivity in your tissue decreases was found to be associated with memory impairment and the individuals with diabetes were worse.

The research makes it clear that if you want to improve your memory or prevent it from getting worse, you need to implement strategies to improve insulin sensitivity.

Even in young adults, hyperglycemia is associated with subtle brain injury and impaired memory and attention (Weinstein G, et.al., 2015).

When you eat a meal consisting of high glycemic index carbohydrates, your blood glucose levels will increase too much.

While you may tolerate that occasionally, eating that way every day will affect your insulin sensitivity, and it will not be good for your memory.

It has been proposed that toxins generated by insulin resistance transit across the blood-brain barrier into the brain, where they induce insulin resistance to the brain tissue, creating inflammation and cell death (De La Monte SM, 20120.)

Diets high in trans-fat and saturated fat adversely affect cognition. Fruit, vegetables, cereal, and fish are associated with lower risk of dementia and better cognition (Parrot MD, Greenwood CE, 2007). As you get more insulin resistant, ingestion of rapidly absorbed, high-glycemic index carbohydrates increase oxidative stress and inflammatory compounds.

Cereals were listed as associated with lower risk. But, you have to be careful with cereals because most cereals are not low glycemic index. For that reason, cereals may adversely affect your insulin sensitivity and not be your best choice. That does not mean you should avoid all carbohydrates. There are some healthy, very low glycemic index carbohydrates like beans, lentils, and vegetables.                                                                                                           

Also keep in mind that fish is contaminated now, especially with mercury. Contaminants have shown to interfere with the benefits of fish. It is better to use a high-quality fish oil to increase your omega 3 fatty acid intake. If you eat fish, wild salmon is still your best choice.

This is a summary of the 3 reasons why improving insulin sensitivity will improve your memory.                

Increasing insulin sensitivity and eating low glycemic index food, what you eat will not increase your blood glucose that high. It will also not increase oxidative stress and inflammatory compounds. You will end up with less cell death and brain damage and instead see the improved memory.


References:

Umegaki, H., Makino, T., Uemura, K., Shimada, H., Hayashi, T., Cheng, X. W., & Kuzuya, M. (2017). The associations among insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, physical performance, diabetes mellitus, and cognitive function in relatively healthy older adults with subtle cognitive dysfunctionFrontiers in aging neuroscience9.

Weinstein, G., Maillard, P., Himali, J. J., Beiser, A. S., Au, R., Wolf, P. A., … & DeCarli, C. (2015). Glucose indices are associated with cognitive and structural brain measures in young adults. Neurology84(23), 2329-2337.

Suzanne, M. (2012). Metabolic derangements mediate cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: role of peripheral insulin resistance diseases. Panminerva medica54(3), 171.

Parrott, M. D., & Greenwood, C. E. (2007). Dietary influences on cognitive function with aging. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1114(1), 389-397.

Greenwood, C. E., & Winocur, G. (2005). High-fat diets, insulin resistance and declining cognitive function. Neurobiology of aging26(1), 42-45.


Learn To Eat Program:

Recommendations that work. Improve your memory with the food you eat. This is not a regular diet program

Food that improves insulin sensitivity.

Posted by on 8:22 pm Diabetes, Eating, Fruit juice, Insulin resistance | 0 comments

You can effectively improve your insulin sensitivity just by avoiding some few things.

Last week I covered how saturated fat from animal sources may decrease insulin sensitivity.

We need fat. What will happen if we instead ate mono and polyunsaturated fat? That’s the type of fat we get from nuts, seeds and avocados.

Here is an example.

When study participants ate 25 g of pistachio nuts twice a day for 12 weeks, their blood glucose levels decreased, their hemoglobin A1c (a measurement of long term glucose control) decreased and even their systolic blood pressure decreased(Parham M, et al. 2014).

Not all carbohydrates are the same and will produce the same results.

You need to stay away from the high glycemic index carbohydrates. That’s the ones that will elevate your blood glucose to a high level. They require a lot of insulin to metabolize. Insulin moves the blood glucose from the blood into the cells where you can use it for energy.

Exposing your cells to high levels of insulin and glucose regularly, will with time make them less sensitive to insulin. Drinking 2 sugar sweetened beverages per day for 6 months induced features of the metabolic syndrome and fatty liver(Bray GA, Popkin BM, 2013). The metabolic syndrome is a condition which includes insulin resistance, elevated cholesterol and elevated blood pressure.

If you drink soft drinks, fruit juice or any other form of sweet beverage, do an experiment.

Stop drinking it and watch what happens.

Next week I will explain what kind of carbohydrates you can use to improve your insulin sensitivity.

 

 

Learn to Eat:  Recommendations that work. This is not a regular diet program.

 

Bray GA, Popkin BM. Calorie-sweetened beverages and fructose: what have we learned 10 years later. Pediatr Obes. 2013 Aug;8(4):242-8. doi: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2013.00171.x. Epub 2013 Apr 29.
Parham M, Heidari S, Khorramirad A, Hozoori M, Hosseinzadeh F, Bakhtyari L, Vafaeimanesh J. Effects of pistachio nut supplementation on blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized crossover trial. Rev Diabet Stud. 2014 Summer;11(2):190-6. doi: 10.1900/RDS.2014.11.190. Epub 2014 Aug 10.