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Body mass index

How does a high fat, ketogenic diet affect your muscles?

Posted by on 9:00 am Blood triglycerides, Body fat, Body mass index, Diet, Eating, Exercise, Fat, General Health, Get in shape, Health Risk, Muscles, Sports performance, The Learn to Eat Plan, Weight loss | 0 comments

ketogenic diet

 

How does a high fat, ketogenic diet affect your muscles?

 

There is a lot of promotion and talk about the benefits of restricting carbohydrate intake and eating a high fat, ketogenic diet.

When you read things like that, always ask, where is the evidence? Is there any science supporting the claims?

There is agreement on that more lean muscle mass and a lower body fat percentage are beneficial. This is true for everybody, but especially athletes.

Before you go on a high-fat diet, you want to know how a regime like that will affect your lean muscle mass.

The following research included 42 healthy individuals that followed a ketogenic diet for 6 weeks consisting of the same calorie intake as their regular diet (Urbain P, et.al., 2017).

They were tested for several things at the start of the study and after 6 weeks.

 

 

VO2peak and peak power decreased after the ketogenic diet.

The participants lost equal amounts of fat and fat-free mass, which means they lost some muscle mass.

Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol increased significantly, LDL by 10.7% which is quite a lot, especially since LDL is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Glucose, insulin, and IGF-1 (a growth factor) dropped significantly by 3.0, 22.2 and 20.2%.

Another non-significant change was also seen.

 

ketogenic diet 2

 

Similar results were found when seventeen overweight or obese men were admitted to metabolic wards where they consumed a high-carbohydrate baseline diet for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of a ketogenic diet (Hall KD, et.al., 2016).

 

Body fat loss slowed during the ketogenic diet and coincided with increased protein utilization and loss of fat-free mass. These participants also lost muscle mass, and this study was done under very strict control.

 

Apparently a high-fat diet is not producing the amazing results some would want you to believe.

 

References

 

Hall KD, Chen KY, Guo J, Lam YY, Leibel RL, Mayer LE, Reitman ML, Rosenbaum M, Smith SR, Walsh BT, Ravussin E. Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug;104(2):324-33.

 

Urbain P, Strom L, Morawski L, Wehrle A, Deibert P, Bertz H.Impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted ketogenic diet on physical fitness, body composition and biochemical parameters in healthy adults.Nutr Metab (Lond). 2017 Feb 20;14:17

Learn to eat program

  • How and why different foods affect you
  • How to put together meals that will produce the results you’re looking for
  • How to lose weight effortlessly by eating the foods your body needs
  • How to gain muscle and improve sports performance.
  • How to reduce inflammation and pain
  • How to stabilize your moods so you feel happier
  • How to lower cholesterol and triglycerides

Walk fast to get help with with weight loss.

Posted by on 1:00 pm BMI, Body fat, Body mass index, Exercise, Exercise, General Health, Get in shape, Lose fat, Sports performance, Vigorous Activity, Waist circumference, Weight, Weight loss | 0 comments

Running on treadmillWalking has been promoted as an easy way to lose weight and stay in shape, but is it really effective? That is exactly what the reviewed researched investigated.

The participants a total of 4511 adults aged 18-64 years were included in the study(Fan JX, et al. 2013). The body mass index (BMI) were measured and accelerometers were used to evaluate minutes per day of high intensity bouts of walking of either 10 minutes or more, or less than 10 minutes. This was compared with lower intensity walking of 10 minutes or more per day and lower intensity walking of less than 10 minutes per day.

It was found that both higher intensity short-duration or walking long-duration were related to reduced BMI or risk of overweight/obesity. Neither the short walks or the long walks of lower intensity were found to have a positive effect on BMI or risk of overweight/obesity.

The message is that even less than 10 minutes of walking per day can help you prevent weight gain if it is high intensity walking. This is another example showing that it is the intensity of the exercise you do that is important, not the time you spend doing it. The more intense you exercise, the less time you need to spend doing it.

 

 

 

Fan JX, Brown BB, Hanson H, Kowaleski-Jones L, Smith KR, Zick CD Moderate to vigorous physical activity and weight outcomes: does every minute count? Am J Health Promot. 2013 Sep-Oct;28(1):41-9. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.120606-QUAL-286. Epub 2013 Mar 4.

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Is extreme endurance training and competitions like marathons healthy?

Posted by on 11:00 am Body fat, Body mass index, Bone density, bone loss, Exercise, Get in shape, Health, Sports performance | 0 comments

No one can dispute that regular exercise is beneficial, but sometimes we tend to think that more is better.
The reviewed research investigated the effects of training for, and the participation in endurance competitions like marathon ultra-marathon, Iron-man distance triathlons and very long-distance bicycle racing (Patil HR, et al. 2012).

In veteran extreme endurance athletes the recurrent injury and repair to the heart muscle that occur in these athletes may essentially create arrhythmias.

Chronic excessive and sustained endurance exercise may be associated with diastolic dysfunction, large-artery wall stiffening and coronary artery calcification.

Don’t draw the conclusion that exercise is dangerous, and that it is better not to exercise, because that is not true. Most endurance athletes don’t even develop these conditions, but if you’re thinking about starting to run marathons for health reasons, you may want to rethink that and instead start to do high-intensity interval training. High-intensity interval training takes a lot less time, and has shown to provide numerous health benefits.

 

 

 

Patil HR, O’Keefe JH, Lavie CJ, Magalski A, Vogel RA, McCullough PA. Cardiovascular damage resulting from chronic excessive endurance exercise. Mo Med. 2012 Jul-Aug;109(4):312-21.

Fiber rich food is more important than you may think.

Posted by on 10:44 am Body mass index, Health | 0 comments

Most people know that fiber can help to keep the gastrointestinal tract healthy and prevent constipation. While this is true there are many other reasons why it is important to eat fiber rich food.

The reviewed study investigated whether a fiber-rich diet measured by a fiber index is associated with lower rates of metabolic syndrome when compared to a diet low in saturated fat or cholesterol as measured by a saturated fat index and a cholesterol index (Carlson JJ, et al. 2011). The metabolic syndrome is recognized by a cluster of symptoms, increased waist circumference, elevated blood pressure, triglycerides and blood sugar and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL). These type of symptoms are now seen in more and more people even in adolescents. The study participants were 12 to 19 year old boys and girls.

It was found that each quintile increase in the fiber index was associated with a 20% decrease of the metabolic syndrome. Neither the saturated fat index nor the cholesterol index was found to be significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome.

 

 

Carlson JJ, Eisenmann JC, Norman GJ, Ortiz KA, Young PC. Dietary fiber and nutrient density are inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome in US adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Nov;111(11):1688-95.

It is not only how much you weigh, but where you carry your weight that is important.

Posted by on 8:58 pm BMI, Body fat, Body mass index, Risk of death, Waist-to-hip ratio | 0 comments


The latest research on the association of body fat and the risk of death was just published in the New England Journal of Medicine, a very prestigious publication (Pischon T, et al, 2008). Most of the studies in the past have relied on the body mass index (BMI) and only few have examined if it is important where the fat is distributed.

This study however, which was really large, it included 359,387 participants from nine countries in Europe, looked at both BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as it relates to the risk of death. The follow-up was 9.7 years.

The lowest risks of death were observed at a BMI of 25.3 for men and 24.3 for women. The researchers also found that waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were strongly associated with the risk of death, the bigger waist circumference and the bigger waist-to-hip ratio, the higher was the risk of death.

The investigations concluded that both general adiposity and abdominal adiposity are associated with the risk of death.

 

References:

Pischon T, et al. General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. N Engl J Med. 2008 Nov 13;359(20):2105-20.