Your Road to Wellness

Alzheimer’s

Does reduced circulation in the brain increase the risk for Alzheimer’s disease?

Posted by on 9:00 am Alzheimer’s | 0 comments

Alzheimer disease

 

Every tissue in the body needs nutrients including the brain and the nervous system.
To deliver an optimal amount of nutrients to the tissue, we need a vascular system that
provide good circulation.
Atherosclerosis and stenosis of the vascular system will decrease blood circulation.
The following research investigated the impact of intracranial arterial stenosis on the
progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease (Zhu J, et.al., 2014).
423 participants with mild cognitive impairment were included in the study, and they were
evaluated with clinical and neuropsychological examinations every year for 4 years.
CT angiography was used to measure the stenosis of major intracranial arteries.
At the last follow up, the researchers found that 116 participants had progressed to
dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease.

 

 

They also found that the presence of moderate or severe intracranial arterial stenosis
significantly increased the risk of dementia progression and also the risk of developing
Alzheimer’s disease.

 

losing memory

 

It’s important to start early to prevent the buildup of plaque in the vascular system since it can
start at an early age and is a gradual process. As you see it’s not only important for the heart,
but also for the brain.

 

Reference:

Zhu J, Wang Y, Li J, Deng J, Zhou H. Intracranial artery stenosis and progression from mild
cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 2014 Mar 11;82(10):842-9.

 

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This antioxidant is lower in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s.

Posted by on 8:32 am Alzheimer’s, Antioxidents, Brain, Dementia, Nervous System | 0 comments

 

This antioxidant is lower in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s.

 

There are good reasons why the body produces its own antioxidant enzymes.

All tissues including the nervous system and the brain are exposed to free radical damage.

The most important antioxidant the body is making is probably glutathione.

Humans with neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders have demonstrated altered levels of glutathione and oxidized glutathione (Gu F, et.al., 2015).  A decreased ratio of glutathione to oxidized glutathione has been found in the blood and brain of these individuals.

 

 

Glutathione depletion can lead to abnormalities of a mitochondrial function where the cells make energy. A few studies have shown that glutathione deficiency occurs prior to neuropathological abnormalities.

These researchers found that glutathione was significantly decreased in the red blood cells from male patients with Alzheimer’s disease (Liu H, et.al., 2004).

 

 

The most common form of glutathione is reduced glutathione, but don’t take that. This form of glutathione is oxidized in the stomach and does not provide many benefits.

S-acetyl glutathione on the other hand gets into the cells where it’s needed (Cacciatore I, et al., 2010).

 

References:

Cacciatore I, Cornacchia C, Pinnen F, Mollica A, Di Stefano A.Prodrug approach for increasing cellular glutathione levels.Molecules. 2010 Mar 3;15(3):1242-64.

Gu F, Chauhan V, Chauhan A.Glutathione redox imbalance in brain disorders.Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Jan;18(1):89-95.

Liu H, Wang H, Shenvi S, Hagen TM, Liu RM.Glutathione metabolism during aging and in Alzheimer disease.Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun;1019:346-9.

 

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The neurovascular system, oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s. What can you do to protect yourself?

Posted by on 7:31 am Alzheimer’s, Cardiovascular Disease, Dementia, Nervous System | 0 comments

oxidative stress

 

It is very important to have a good blood supply to every tissue in the body.  All tissues, but especially the brain, depending on the good blood supply to function properly.  This is most important for the brain because it has a very high energy demand.

Neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels communicate with each other to regulate cerebral blood flow.

This study gathered information on the importance of oxidative stress as it relates to vascular changes observed in brain aging and neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s (Carvalho C, Moreira PI, 2018).

 

 

One of the emerging causative factors associated with Alzheimer’s pathology is oxidative stress.  This Alzheimer’s-related increase in oxidative stress has been attributed to decreased levels of the brain antioxidant, glutathione (Saharan S, Mandal PK, 2014).

Glutathione protects cells against oxidative stress, and protecting brain endothelial cells under oxidative stress is key to treating cerebrovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (Song J, et.al., 2014).  The endothelium is the inner layer of the blood vessel wall.

The body makes glutathione, but it is making less as we get older, and that’s when we need more.

We can, however, take glutathione orally.   Regularly reduced glutathione which is the most common form you will find for sale is not very bioavailable, most of it is oxidized in the stomach and is not going to provide much protection.

You can instead take S-Acetyl Glutathione which gets into the cells and provides very valuable protection from free radical damage.

 

References:

Carvalho C, Moreira PI, Oxidative Stress: A Major Player in Cerebrovascular Alterations Associated to Neurodegenerative Events.Front Physiol. 2018 Jul 3;9:806.

Saharan S, Mandal PK. The emerging role of glutathione in Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;40(3):519-29.

Song J, Kang SM, Lee WT, Park KA, Lee KM, Lee JE.Glutathione protects brain endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress by increasing nrf2 expression.Exp Neurobiol. 2014 Mar;23(1):93-103. 

 

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Can being exposed to heat help your memory, and reduce your risk for Alzheimer’s disease?

Posted by on 9:00 am Alzheimer’s, Cardiovascular Disease, Dementia | 0 comments

 

If you follow us regularly you saw that the stress of high heat as in sauna use provided protection against cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease and memory disorders share some of the same risk factors. Does that mean sauna use would provide some protection from Alzheimer’s disease as well? The following research investigated just that.

 

 

2,315 apparently healthy men aged 42-60 years at the start of the study, were followed for an
average of 20.7 years (LaukkanenT, et al., 2017). Of these men, 204 ended up being diagnosed with dementia and 123 were diagnosed with
Alzheimer’s disease. 4-7 sauna bathing sessions per week were found to be associated with lowered risks of
dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. This was the same frequency of sauna use that helped prevent death from cardiovascular
disease. Sauna baths also make you very relaxed afterward. Give it a try.

 

Reference:
Laukkanen T, Kunutsor S, Kauhanen J, Laukkanen JA, Sauna bathing is inversely associated
with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in middle-aged Finnish men. Age Ageing. 2017 Mar
1;46(2):245-249.

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Oxidised cholesterol and Alzheimer’s disease

Posted by on 6:46 am Alzheimer’s, Cholesterol | 0 comments

 

Increasing evidence is now supporting the hypothesis that oxidized cholesterol is the driving force behind the development of Alzheimer’s disease and oxysterols, which are the oxidized form of cholesterol, are the link connecting the disease to altered cholesterol metabolism in the brain and to high cholesterol; this is because of the ability of oxysterols, unlike cholesterol, to cross the blood brain barrier (Gamba, et.al., 2015).

 

 

Oxidative stress is associated with neuroinflammation, and a vicious circle has been found to connect oxidative stress and inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease.

 

Analysis of published data shows that the levels of cholesterol are increased in people with mild cognitive impairment,  and 24-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol are elevated in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment compared to controls (Wang, et.al., 2016).

24-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol are types of oxysterols.

The following research found that study participants with mild cognitive impairment had significantly higher levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol when compared to participants with normal cognition (Liu Q, et.al., 2016).

It may look like taking statin drugs to lower cholesterol could be a solution to prevent memory loss later in life, but that does not work.

 

In this study the authors concluded that there is good evidence that statins given in late life to people at risk of vascular disease do not prevent cognitive decline or dementia (McGuinness B, et.al., 2016).

 

Dietary changes are a better choice.

 

This research indicated that adherence to the meditranean diet was associated with better cognitive performance and lower dementia rates (Anastasiou CA, et.al., 2017).

 

References:

 

Anastasiou CA, Yannakoulia M, Kosmidis MH, Dardiotis E, Hadjigeorgiou GM, Sakka P, Arampatzi X, Bougea A, Labropoulos I, Scarmeas N, Mediterranean diet and cognitive health: Initial results from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet.PLoS One. 2017 Aug 1;12(8):e0182048.

 

Gamba P, Testa G, Gargiulo S, Staurenghi E, Poli G, Leonarduzzi G.Oxidized cholesterol as the driving force behind the development of Alzheimer’s disease.Front Aging Neurosci. 2015 Jun 19;7:119. 

 

Liu Q, An Y, Yu H, Lu Y, Feng L, Wang C, Xiao R.Relationship between oxysterols and mild cognitive impairment in the elderly: a case-control study.Lipids Health Dis. 2016 Oct 10;15(1):177.

 

McGuinness B1, Craig D, Bullock R, Passmore P.Statins for the prevention of dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jan 4;(1):CD003160.

Wang HL, Wang YY, Liu XG, Kuo SH, Liu N, Song QY, Wang MW.Cholesterol, 24-Hydroxycholesterol, and 27-Hydroxycholesterol as Surrogate Biomarkers in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis.J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;51(1):45-55.

 

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Oxidative stress is involved in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

Posted by on 8:28 am Alzheimer’s, Anti-Aging, Cognition, Diseases, General Health, Health Risk, Research, Stress, Wellness | 0 comments

Increased oxidative stress has been documented in the frontal cortex in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (Ansari, MA 2010).  One of the emerging causative factors associated with Alzheimer’s pathology is oxidative stress. This AD-related increase in oxidative stress has been attributed to decreased levels of the brain antioxidant, glutathione (Saharan and Mandal, 2014). 

The body uses antioxidants to limit the damage done by oxidative stress and glutathione is the body’s most effective self-made antioxidant.  Glutathione is a part of the body’s natural defense against free radical damage.

The following study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure glutathione levels in both healthy individuals and patients with alzheimer’s disease (Mandal PK et. al, 2015).

The researchers found a reduction of glutathione in both the hippocampus and frontal cortex–which are two different areas of the brain–in Alzheimer’s patients.  It is interesting to note that glutathione reduction in those regions correlated with a decline in cognitive function.  The researchers concluded that the study provides compelling evidence that the glutathione levels in specific brain regions are relevant markers for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease.  

So how can we ensure that our glutathione levels remain at healthy levels?  One way is to add it into our daily routine via supplementation.  It is now possible to supply glutathione in a bioavailable form–which gets it into the cells where it is needed–and that is by using S-Acetyl Glutathione (Cacciatore et. al., 2010).

The body is making less glutathione as we get older, that happens to everybody, but some are making less than others.

References

Ansari, A, and S W Scheff. “Oxidative Stress in the Progression of Alzheimer Disease in the Frontal Cortex.OUP Academic, Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology , 1 Feb. 2010, academic.oup.com/jnen/article/69/2/155/2917186.

Cacciatore I1, Cornacchia C, Pinnen F, Mollica A, Di Stefano A. “Prodrug approach for increasing cellular glutathione levels.” Molecules, 3 Mar. 2010, https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/15/3/1242

Mandal PK, Saharan S., Tripathi M., and Murari G. “Brain glutathione levels–a novel biomarker for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease.” Biol Psychiatry, 15 Nov. 2015,  https://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/S0006322315003121

Saharan S., Mandal P.K., “The emerging role of glutathione in Alzheimer’s disease.” J Alzheimers Dis. 23 April 2014. https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad132483

 

 

 

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